Because it's not all her fault.

Refrigerator Mothers

Vol.54 Issue 01
Cover of Refrigerator Mothers, Fall 2010 Mothers,

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I learned to live with my soul. Now i have to learn to live with my mother!
I’ll never again live in a house that she’s not in. I will attend to her with
more obedience than even a child would
I won’t speak of anything but my mother.
And then she’ll buy my two new pigeons, and I’ll clip their wings so that
They’ll never fly away.
—from The Beastiary by Federigo Tozzi (1888-1920)


Minna Proctor

I met our cover artist, Israeli photographer Elinor Carucci, about fifteen years ago. I’d been assigned to interview her about her debut series, Closer, by the then new arty high-concept online sex magazine, Elinor’s pictures weren’t sexy—exactly. There was a lot of nudity in them—Elinor, her husband, her father, mother, and brother in various states of undress. (And she does have a very beautiful family.) But her pictures were about intimacy, not sex, and they were really almost hard to look at. Her work practically decimated the “acceptable,” even artistic, boundaries of voyeurism. Hard to look at, hard to look away from, and unlike so much art photography, almost impossible to project meaning onto. There was no room for subjective interpretation, for empathy, for imagining oneself into the scene. Elinor’s landscape was honest and completely hermetic.

Our conversation that day was more about secular Judaism and Israeli politics than about sex—much to my editor’s disappointment (I was sternly instructed to repeat the interview and focus more on full-frontal male nudity than yeshiva). But we did end up speaking at great length about the terms of her project. She was trying, she explained, to get past the mask that everyone puts on when the camera is pointing at them, the involuntary pose, the hardened smile, the self-conscious eyebrow. Her project focused on her family mostly because she had extensive access to them, and her creative strategy was to spend months and months photographing them constantly, to arrive at the point where they didn’t notice her or her camera anymore. In its explication, her technique sounds like a very clever art project. In practice, however, there was no doubt that she’d taken photography past portraiture to some ultra-essential naturalness directly into the intimacy of a family’s life.

So, what does Elinor’s lovely portrait have to do with Refrigerator Mothers, the outmoded psychological theory from the 1950s that emotionally frigid mothers caused autism, schizophrenia, and related spectrum disorders in children? The answer to that question lies in the extraordinary complexity of mothers, mothering, being mothered, not being mothered—the trails mothers leave on the psyche. It is intimate material, yet subject to so much protective gray matter, to involuntary muscles, and defensive postures that we don’t even dare dismantle.

The picture on our cover, “Mother Is Worried,” from a later series entitled Comfort, is more open, more suggestive than Carucci’s earlier work. It is as if the intimacy has become generous; we are allowed to come very close, but also to bring in our own stories. Likewise, our theme came out of my own fascination with my mother—what about me can I blame on her; what about her memory can I worship. And I think that the very seriously considered mid-century theory that mothers can damage neural pathways (or protect them) is simple, irrefutable cultural evidence that from Sophocles to Bruno Bettelheim, we’re all fascinated. We’re all able in some way to intimately recognize and viscerally respond to the phrase “mother is worried.”

Obviously our issue has broad and bizarre paths; the subject of the mother is sometimes explicit and often oblique. The conversation between Jenny Offill and Ceridwen Morris (both mothers and writers) is at once a craft discussion and an exploration of the notion of Mother as a literary subject. Mother is perhaps too complex to be a narrative device, too ambiguous even for literature. She is immaculate, primordial. She is Mildred Pierce and Mommy Dearest. She is Medea and Sara too, who, pregnant at a hundred and one, could only laugh.

Happy reading!



Rebecca Wolff
The Curious Life and Mysterious Death of Peter J. Perry

Charles Wyatt
Variation 11
Variatio 12: Canone alla Quarta
Variation 13
Variatio 18 a 1 Clav.: Canone alla Sesta
Variatio 23 a 2 Clav.

Leslie Ann Miller
From a Balcony Over Rue de la Huchette
Child Asleep in a Bass Case
Relinquishing the Fusional Moment
Boy at the Center, Intervening World

Susan Rothbard
Feeding the Birds
Dear Son

Vida Cross
Out in the Ocean

Lisa Ortiz
The Drawer Marked Meats
Medusa in the Kitchen

Kelli Russell Agodon
She Says What an Amazing Lamp
Large Optimistic Bowl
The Gynecologist Imagines Another Life


James Scudamore

Neil Boyack
Country Junk

Thomas Bonfiglio

Rebecca Chew

Line-Maria Lång
Translated by Thomas E. Kennedy

Matt Bell
Xarles, Xavier, Xenos

Buddhadeva Bose
Makhanlal’s Sad Tale
Translated by Arunava Sinha

Ankur Parikh
Three Stories


Jessie van Eerden
A Good Day


Ceridwen Morris and Jenny Offill
Is There Anything Literary About Motherhood?


Jena Salon
Suffering Love

J.D. Reid
Comedy in a Minor Key and The Death of the Adversary

Anton Leist and Peter Singer, editors
J.M Coetzee and Ethics
By Charles Berret

Elyse Fenton
By Paul-Victor Winters

Ruth Franklin
A Thousand Darknesses: Lies and Truths in Holocaust Fiction
By Anne Baney

Gustaf Sobin
Collected Poems
By Mark Hillringhouse

Leïla Marouane
The Sexual Life of an Islamist in Paris
By Deborah Hall

Benjamin Percy
The Wilding
By Jody Handerson

Christian Hawkey
By Cassie Hay